Information Cloud formation, types of clouds. Ethiopians trading gold and ivory, Malays trading pepper and nutmeg, Yemenis trading frankincense and myrrh—all would mingle in trade towns and ports scattered across the ocean, negotiating the transshipment of their precious cargo in some common trade tongue. As navigators from afar developed a large body of collective knowledge of winds and currents, a complex trading system evolved that spanned the entire Indian Ocean. The variation in temperature between landmass and water could be much as 68 degrees F 20 degrees C. In , however, the Yongle Emperor of China's new Ming Dynasty sent out the first of seven expeditions to visit all of the empire's major trading partners around the Indian Ocean.
As the wind is deflected toward the right in the Northern Hemisphere Coriolis effect , these winds become southwest monsoons. During the fall, landmass and water begin to cool and the land starts losing heat faster than the ocean. Therefore, in the winter, the pressure system reverses because the cold polar airmass moves southward, and Tibet and the surrounding areas in the north become a high-pressure center. The Indian Ocean, over which the sun rays fall directly, turns into a low-pressure zone.
Thus, the wind direction is reversed, becoming the northeast trade winds of the winter. These two branches prevail from November through April. During the months of July and August, there is an easterly jet stream prevailing over the Indian peninsula. The southwest winds produce most of the rainfall over the entire Indian subcontinent.
The complex network that had defined Indian Ocean trade soon began to unravel. Starting with Vasco da Gama in , heavily-armed caravels. Indian Ocean Trade has been a key factor in East–West exchanges throughout history. Roman annexation of Egypt indicates that the monsoon was known and utilized for trade in his time. During the 16th and 17th century, Japanese ships also made forays into Indian Ocean trade through the Red Seal ship system.
There are only 20 rainy days in Kutch India , and some places in the Rajasthan desert have fewer than five rainy days in a year. The monsoon provides valuable and abundant water to Asia. Most of the monsoon climatic region that encompasses South, East, and Southeast Asia supports agrarian economies dependent on rainfall.
Monsoon is also seeking to maximise the MAR Ratio of annualised return to maximum drawdown. Putting all of these factors together is designed to provide investors with extensive portfolio diversification, strong alpha creation and compelling compounding of returns. From November until end-May the strategy delivered a net annualised return of The Sharpe ratio came in at 1. As an Asian-focused alternative fund manager, Monsoon has designed the strategy with an eye to the region.
Nonetheless there are several factors in the Asian market that are well suited to the strategy. Prakash likes the fact that the Asian equity derivatives market is very much driven by retail investors. For a systematic fund this is ideal since trends are longer and stronger than they would be if institutional money were dominant.
In this regard, foreign fund flows also have a noticeable impact as they tend to accelerate both volatility and directional trends.
If you wish to contribute or participate in the discussions about articles you are invited to join SKYbrary as a registered user. Monsoon is traditionally defined as seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea. However, because of the winds and weather usually associated with the monsoons in India and Southeast Asia, the word monsoon is often used to mean the prevailing wind and associated weather of these regions. Continental land masses warm up considerably in summer and cool down in winter.
The biggest temperature variations are found in the land masses of North America and Asia. Monsoons are caused by the larger amplitude of the seasonal cycle of land temperature compared to that of nearby oceans. This differential warming happens because heat in the ocean is mixed vertically through a "mixed layer" that may be fifty metres deep, through the action of wind and buoyancy-generated turbulence, whereas the land surface conducts heat slowly, with the seasonal signal penetrating perhaps a metre or so.
Additionally, the specific heat capacity of liquid water is significantly higher than that of most materials that make up land. Together, these factors mean that the heat capacity of the layer participating in the seasonal cycle is much larger over the oceans than over land, with the consequence that the air over the land warms faster and reaches a higher temperature than the air over the ocean. The hot air over the land tends to rise, creating an area of low pressure.
This creates a steady wind blowing toward the land, bringing the moist near-surface air over the oceans with it.